Gall Bladder

Bile Regulation

Bile is produced in the liver by hepatocytes. Bile contains phospholipids and bile salts, emulsifying agents that are necessary for fat absorption and digestion. Bile is also a route for excretion of cholesterol and bile pigments. Bile pigments are metabolic breakdown products of hemoglobin and cytochromes that give bile its yellow-green color. Bile pigments are further metabolized by bacteria in the colon, causing feces to have a characteristic brown color. Additionally, bile contains water and bicarbonate ions that are secreted by duct cells that line the bile ducts within the liver.

Bile storage in the gallbladder

 Bile is released into the small intestine by the sphincter of Oddi . During the interdigestive period, the sphincter of Oddi is contracted, preventing bile from flowing out into the duodenum. As a consequence, pressure increases in the common bile duct, and bile flows into the gallbladder. In the gallbladder, epithelial cells reabsorb water and electrolytes, causing the bile to become more concentrated.

Bile release into the small intestine

During the digestive period, intestinal phase signals stimulate the release of bile into the small intestine.

Fatty acids in the lumen of the duodenum stimulate endocrine cells to release the hormone cholecystokinin CCK.CCK stimulates contractions in the smooth muscle of the gallbladder. As well, CCK causes relaxation of the sphincter sphincter of Oddi, allowing bile release into the duodenum. Acidic chyme in the lumen of the duodenum stimulates other endocrine cells to release the hormone secretin. Secretin stimulates duct cells in the liver to release bicarbonate into the bile.

Recirculation of bile salts

The total pool of bile salts present in the body is not sufficient to fully process the fats in a typical meal, thus bile salts need to be recycled. Specific transporters in the terminal ileum move bile salts from the lumen of the digestive tract to the intestinal capillaries. They are then transported directly to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Hepatocytes take up bile salts from the blood, and increase the secretion of bile salts into the bile canaliculi, small passageways that convey bile into the larger bile ducts. 95% of the bile that is released to the small intestine is recycled,while 5% of the bile salts are lost in the feces.


In the majority of cases, gallstones are precipitates of cholesterol.

The liver takes excess dietary fats and carbs and turns them into cholesterol. Which it then turns into bile. Which is pumped out of the body through the intestines. With fiber is passes out through the bowel.

Cholesterol is a nonpolar molecule that is kept in solution in the bile by bile salts and phospholipids.

Gallstones form when the level of cholesterol in the bile exceeds the capacity of the phospholipids and bile salts to keep it in solution. This might occur in someone with hypercholesterolemia (high circulating levels of LDL cholesterol), or in an older person in whom bile salt synthetic enzymes have become less active.

Gallstones can show no symptoms. When they become a problem is when gallbladder contractions cause a stone to move into one of the bile ducts. The figure summarizes the pathological consequences of gallstones in different locations. Notably, a gallstone blocking the common bile duct will prevent the flow of bile into the small intestine. This causes decreased excretion of bile pigments and can lead to jaundice as bilirubin accumulates in tissues. If the gallstone is lodged in the duodenal papilla, it will block the release of pancreatic secretions. Inappropriate activation of pancreatic zymogens within the pancreas leads to acute pancreatitis (tissue damage and inflammation in the pancreas).

Gallstones can be treated by surgical methods. Gallstones confined to the gallbladder and cystic bile duct can be treated with removal of the gallbladder. Endoscopic surgical methods can be used to remove gallstones lodged in the common bile duct or duodenal papilla. In patients that are not good candidates for surgery, shock waves can be used to break up stones.

Oral bile salts are used to help solubilize cholesterol gallstones. This therapy works because oral bile salts are delivered to the bile ducts and gallbladder by the recirculation of bile. Also other supplements are used.

Poor liver function results in an inability to tolerate fatty food. If you eat too many processed fats or  carbs they will turn into unhealthy fats. As triglycerides or bad cholesterol LDL. Your liver will try to pump the fats out through the bile, moving it into the small intestine.  This raises the cholesterol  content of the bile and results in gall stones.

If your liver is not working efficiently it will not produce enough bile salts to keep biliary cholesterol in suspension. This can result in gall stones, gall bladder disease, and painful liver cysts. This can cause nausea vomiting, upper abdominal pain that radiates into the back and into the right shoulder.

Change the diet more vegetables, good fats, no sugar, use  juicing, and  protein, no gluten.

The liver and the immune system are related. Take the load off the immune system by cleansing the liver. Excess body heat is a sign of a toxic liver. Skin problems itching rashes signs of liver problems.

Emotional  stress strains the liver and poor liver health strains the emotions. Use NLP neuro linguistic programing for quick results with emotional stress.

1.4 litres per minute of blood flow through the liver. The liver is the largest organ in the body.

The liver has two sources of blood. one fresh oxygenated blood from the heart. The other bringing blood from the stomach and the intestines with nutrients.


For gall bladder problems you need a diet change and the right supplements to put you on your way to improvement,

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